A Minute C Compiler

(The ancient master has moved to
division. Here is a recent one uploaded in September 2020.)

chibicc is but one varied minute C compiler that implements most C11
sides. Even even supposing it restful doubtlessly falls into the « toy compilers »
class appropriate admire various minute compilers quit, chibicc can assemble a total lot of
staunch-world applications, alongside facet Git,
SQLite and
libpng, with out making
adjustments to the compiled applications. Generated executables of these
applications trot their corresponding steal a peep at suites. So, chibicc surely
supports a intensive vary of C11 sides and is able to assemble a total bunch of
a total bunch of traces of staunch-world C code accurately.

chibicc is developed because the reference implementation for a e-book I am
on the moment writing in regards to the C compiler and the low-stage programming.
The e-book covers the superior topic with an incremental near; within the most considerable
chapter, readers will achieve into attain a « compiler » that accepts appropriate a single
amount as a « language », which is able to then salvage one characteristic at a time in every
fragment of the e-book till the language that the compiler accepts matches
what the C11 spec specifies. I took this incremental near from the
by Abdulaziz

Each commit of this challenge corresponds to a fragment of the e-book. For this
create, now now no longer highest the closing declare of the challenge on the opposite hand every commit fashioned to be
fastidiously written with readability in mind. Readers desires to be succesful to be taught
how a C language characteristic will even be done appropriate by studying one or appropriate about a
commits of this challenge. As an illustration, appropriate right here is how
?: ,
and thread-native

are done. Everytime you happen to’ve acquired a total bunch spare time, this can be stress-free to be taught
it from the first

Everytime you happen to admire this challenge, please inform wanting a duplicate of the e-book
when it turns into readily available within the market! 😀 I submit the availability code appropriate right here to provide of us
early salvage entry to to it, due to I fashioned to be planing to quit that anyway with a
permissive initiating-provide license after publishing the e-book. If I assemble now no longer tag
for the availability code, it would possibly perhaps perhaps well now no longer create considerable sense to me to admire it deepest. I
hope to submit the e-book in 2021.

I advise chibicc as chee bee cee cee. « chibi » ability « mini » or
« minute » in Jap. « cc » stands for C compiler.

Keep apart

Aspects which shall be primarily lacking in a minute compiler on the opposite hand supported by
chibicc consist of (on the opposite hand now now no longer runt to):

  • Preprocessor
  • lengthy double (x87 80-bit floting level numbers)
  • Bit-field
  • alloca()
  • Variable-dimension array
  • Thread-native variable
  • Atomic variable
  • Now no longer newest symbol
  • Designated initializer
  • L, u, U and u8 string literals

chibicc does now now no longer toughen digraphs, trigraphs, subtle numbers, Ample&R-vogue
characteristic prototype, and inline meeting.

chibicc outputs a easy on the opposite hand superior error message when it finds an error in
provide code.

There can also simply most definitely be now no longer any optimization trot. chibicc emits spoiled code which shall be
twice or extra slower than GCC’s output. I in level of truth private a blueprint with the intention so that you just can add an
optimization trot as rapidly because the frontend is done.


chibicc involves the following phases:

  • Tokenize: A tokenizer takes a string as an input, breaks it into a itemizing
    of tokens and returns them.

  • Preprocess: A preprocessor takes as an input a itemizing of tokens and output
    a recent itemizing of macro-expanded tokens. It interprets preprocessor
    directives whereas rising macros.

  • Parse: A recursive descendent parser constructs summary syntax bushes
    from the output of the preprocessor. It moreover presents a sort to every AST

  • Codegen: A code generator emits an meeting text for given AST nodes.


When I impart a worm on this compiler, I return to the logo original commit that
supplied the worm and rewrite the commit history as if there had been no such
worm from the beginning plot. Here is an irregular device of fixing bugs, on the opposite hand as a a
fragment of a e-book, it is wanted to admire every commit worm-free.

Thus, I quit now now no longer take dangle of pull requests on this repo. You would possibly perhaps also send me a pull
request when you gape a worm, on the opposite hand it surely is amazingly seemingly that I will be taught your
patch after which follow that to my extinct commits by rewriting history. I will
credit your resolve someplace, on the opposite hand your adjustments will doubtless be rewritten by me sooner than
submitted to this repository.

Furthermore, please admire that I’los angeles rapidly as in a whereas power-push my native repository
to this public one to rewrite history. Everytime you happen to clone this challenge and create
native commits on top of it, your adjustments will can also simply most definitely neatly must be rebased by hand
after I power-push newest commits.

Concerning the Creator

I am Rui Ueyama. I am the creator of 8cc,
which is a keenness C compiler, and moreover the logo original creator of the most contemporary
version of LLVM lld linker, which is a
production-quality linker worn by a amount of working systems and gleaming-scale
possess systems.


  • tcc: A minute C compiler written by Fabrice
    Bellard. I realized loads from this compiler, on the opposite hand the create of tcc and
    chibicc are various. In remark, tcc is a one-trot compiler, whereas
    chibicc is a multi-trot one.

  • lcc: But any other minute C compiler. The creators
    wrote a e-book
    in regards to the internals of lcc, which I realized a staunch helpful resource to admire how a
    compiler is done.

  • An Incremental Manner to Compiler

Learn Extra

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